2010-Present

2018

2017

2016

2015

  • Shipstead, Harrison & Engle (2015)
  • Working memory capacity and the scope and control of attention. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics

  • Hicks, Harrison & Engle (2015)
  • Wonderlic, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence. Intelligence Open PDF

  • Unsworth et al. (2015)
  • Is Playing Video Games Related to Cognitive Abilities?. Psychological Science Open PDF

  • Minamoto et al. (2015)
  • Low cognitive load strengthens distractor interference while high load attenuates when cognitive load and distractor possess similar visual charactersitics. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics Open PDF

  • Foster et al. (2015)
  • Shortened complex span tasks can reliably measure working memory capacity. Memory & Cognition. 43, 226-236. Open PDF

  • Harrison, Shipstead & Engle (2015)
  • Why is working memory capacity related to matrix reasoning tasks? Memory & Cognition. 43: 389-396. Open PDF

2014

  • Bleckley, Foster & Engle (2014)
  • Working memory capacity accounts for the ability to switch between object-based and location-based allocation of visual attention. Memory & Cognition. 1-10. Open PDF

  • Shipstead et al. (2014)
  • The mechanisms of working memory capacity: Primary memory, secondary memory, and attention control. Journal of Memory and Language, 72, 116-141. Open PDF

2013

  • Redick & Lindsey (2013)
  • Complex span and n-back measures of working memory: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20(6), 1102-1113. doi: 10.3758/s13423-013-0453-9. Open PDF

  • Harrison et al. (2013)
  • Working Memory Training May Increase Working Memory Capacity but Not Fluid Intelligence. Psychological Science. doi: 10.1177/0956797613492984. Open PDF         Supplemental Material

  • Redick et al. (2013)
  • No evidence of intelligence improvement after working memory training: A randomized, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(2), 359. Open PDF

  • Engle (2013)
  • Introduction to Special Issue on the Teenage Brain. Current Directions in Psychological Science. Open PDF

  • Shipstead & Engle (2013)
  • Interference within the focus of attention: Working memory tasks reflect more than temporary maintenance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition. DOI: 10.1037/a0028467 Open PDF

2012

  • Redick et al. (2012)
  • Measuring working memory capacity with automated complex span tasks. European Journal of Psychological Assessment 28,164-171. Open PDF

  • Shipstead, Hicks & Engle (2012)
  • Working memory training remains a work in progress. Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition. Open PDF

  • Shipstead, Hicks & Engle (2012)
  • Cogmed working memory training: Does the evidence support the claims?. Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition. Open PDF

  • Redick et al. (2012)
  • Faster, smarter? Working memory capacity and perceptual speed in relation to fluid intelligence. Journal of Cognitive Psychology. Open PDF

  • Shipstead et al. (2012)
  • The scope and control of attention as separate aspects of working memory. Memory. Open PDF

  • Shipstead, Harrison & Engle (2012)
  • Working memory capacity and visual attention: Top-down and bottom-up guidance. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65, 401-407. Open PDF

  • Shipstead, Redick & Engle (2012)
  • Is working memory training effective? Psychological Bulletin. doi: 10.1037/a0027473 Open PDF

  • Lopez et al. (2012)
  • Effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance by United States Air Force pilots. Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition, 1(1), 27-33. Open PDF

2011

  • Redick & Engle (2011)
  • Integrating working memory capacity and context-processing views of cognitive control. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 1048-1055. Open PDF

  • Broadway & Engle (2011)
  • Lapsed attention to elapsed time? Individual differences in working memory capacity and temporal reproduction. Acta Psychologica, 137, 115-126. Open PDF

  • Redick et al. (2011)
  • Working memory capacity and go/no-go task performance: Selective effects of updating, maintenance, and inhibition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37, 308-324. Open PDF

  • Calderon-Garciduenas et al. (2011)
  • Exposure to severe urban air pollution influences cognitive outcomes, brain volume and systemic inflammation in clinically healthy children. Brain and Cognition, 37, 345-355. Open PDF

  • Smith & Engle (2011)
  • Study modality and false recall: The influence of resource availability. Experimental Psychology, 58(2), 117-124. Open PDF

  • Broadway & Engle (2011)
  • Individual differences in working memory capacity and temporal discrimination. PLoS ONE, 6(10). Open PDF

2010

  • Shipstead, Redick & Engle (2010)
  • Does working memory training generalize? Psychologica Belgica, 50, 245-276. Open PDF

  • Ilkowska & Engle (2010)
  • Trait and state differences in working memory capacity. In: A.Gruszka, G.Matthews, & B.Szymura (Eds.), Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition. Attention, Memory, and Executive Control (pp.295-320). Springer, NY. Open PDF

  • Broadway & Engle (2010)
  • Validating running memory span: Measurement of working memory capacity and links with fluid intelligence. Behavior Research Methods, 42, 563-570. Open PDF

  • Broadway, J. M., Redick & Engle (2010)
  • Working memory capacity: Self-control is (in) the goal. In R. Hassin, K. N. Ochsner, & Y. Trope (Eds.), Self control in society, mind, and brain (pp. 163-173). Oxford University Press: New York, NY. Open PDF


2000 - 2009

2009

  • Unsworth et al. (2009)
  • Complex working memory span tasks and higher-order cognition: A latent-variable analysis of the relationship between processing and storage. Memory, 17, 635 - 654. Open PDF

  • Barch et al. (2009)
  • CNTRICS final task selection:  Working memory. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 35, 136-152. Open PDF

  • Gohar et al. (2009)
  • Working memory capacity is decreased in sleep-deprived internal medicine residents.  J Clin Sleep Med. 5(3), 191-197. Open PDF

2008

  • Heitz et al. (2008)
  • Effects of incentive on working memory capacity: Behavioral and pupillometric data. Psychophysiology, 45(1), 119-129. Open PDF

  • Calderon-Garciduenas et al. (2008)
  • Air pollution, cognitive deficits and brain abnormalities: A pilot study with children and dogs.  Brain and Cognition, 68, 117-127. Open PDF

  • Parker et al. (2008)
  • Psychotropic placebos reduce the misinformation effect by increasing monitoring at test.  Memory, 16, 410-419. Open PDF

  • Unsworth & Engle (2008)
  • Speed and accuracy of accessing information in working memory:  An individual differences investigation of focus switching.  Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 616-630. Open PDF

  • Shamosh et al. (2008)
  • Individual differences in delay discounting: Relation to intelligence, working memory, and anterior prefrontal cortex. Psychological Science, 19(9), 904-911. Open PDF

2007

  • Heitz & Engle (2007)
  • Focusing the spotlight:  Individual differences in visual attention control.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 217 - 240. Open PDF

  • Kane et al. (2007)
  • Variation in working memory capacity as variation in executive attention and control. In A.R.A. Conway, C.Jarrold, M.J. Kane, A. Miyake, and J.N. Towse (Eds.),  Variation in Working Memory (pp. 21 - 48).  NY:  Oxford University Press. Open PDF

  • Price, Catrambone & Engle (2007)
  • When capacity matters: The role of working memory in problem solving. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Learning to Solve Complex Scientific Problems (pp. 49-76). NY: Lawrence Erlbaum. Open PDF

  • Redick, Heitz & Engle (2007)
  • Working memory capacity and inhibition: Cognitive and social consequences. In D. S. Gorfein & C. M. MacLeod (Eds.), Inhibition in cognition (pp. 125-1420). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Open PDF

  • Unsworth & Engle (2007)
  • On the division of short-term and working memory: An examination of simple and complex span and their relation to higher order ability.  Psychological Bulletin,133, 1038 - 1066. Open PDF

  • Unsworth & Engle (2007)
  • The nature of individual differences in working memory capacity:  Active maintenance in primary memory and controlled search from secondary memory.  Psychological Review, 114, 104 - 132. Open PDF

  • Unsworth & Engle (2007)
  • Individual differences in working memory capacity and retrieval:  A Cue-dependent search approach. In J.S. Nairne (Ed.),  The Foundations of Remembering:  Essays in Honor of Henry L. Roediger, III (pp. 241 - 258).  NY: Psychology Press. Open PDF

2006

  • Heitz et al. (2006)
  • Working memory, executive function, and general fluid intelligence are not the same.  Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29, 135-136. Open PDF

  • Kane et al. (2006)
  • Working memory capacity and the top-down control of visual search: Exploring the boundaries of "executive attention."  . Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 749 - 777. Open PDF

  • Redick & Engle (2006)
  • Working memory capacity and Attention Network Test performance.  Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20, 713 - 721. Open PDF

  • Unsworth & Engle (2006)
  • A temporal-contextual retrieval account of complex span: An analysis of errors.  Journal  of Memory and Language, 54, 346 - 362. Open PDF

  • Unsworth & Engle (2006)
  • Simple and complex memory spans and their relation to fluid abilities: Evidence from list-length effects.  Journal of Memory and Language, 54, 68 - 80. Open PDF

2005

  • Conway et al. (2005)
  • Working memory span tasks: A methodological review and user's guide.  Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 12, 769 - 786. Open PDF

  • Engle et al. (2005)
  • Cognitive limitations in aging and psychopathology. New York, NY US: Cambridge University Press. Open PDF

  • Hambrick, Kane & Engle (2005)
  • The role of working memory in higher-level cognition: Domain-specific versus domain-general perspectives. In R. Sternberg & J.E. Pretz (Eds.), Cognition and Intelligence: Identifying the Mechanisms of the Mind (pp. 104 - 121).  New York: Cambridge University Press. Open PDF

  • Heitz, Unsworth & Engle (2005)
  • Working memory capacity, attentional control, and fluid intelligence.  In O. Wilhelm & R.W. Engle (Eds.), Handbook of Understanding and Measuring Intelligence (pp. 61-78).  London: Sage Publications. Open PDF

  • Murray & Engle (2005)
  • Accessing situation model information: Memory-based processing versus here-and-now accounts. The Journal of Psychology, 139, 261-272. Open PDF

  • Unsworth & Engle (2005)
  • Working memory capacity and fluid abilities: Examining the correlation between Operation Span and Raven. Intelligence, 33, 67-81. Open PDF

  • Unsworth & Engle (2005)
  • Individual differences in working memory capacity and learning: Evidence from the serial reaction time task.  Memory & Cognition, 33, 213-220. Open PDF

  • Unsworth, Heitz & Engle (2005)
  • Working memory capacity in hot and cold cognition.  In R.W. Engle, G. Sedek, U. Hecker & D.N. McIntosh (Eds.),  Cognitive Limitations in Aging and Psychopathology (pp. 19-43).  NY:  Cambridge University Press. Open PDF

  • Unsworth et al. (2005)
  • An automated version of the operation span task.  Behavior Research Methods, 37, 498 - 505. Open PDF

  • Wilhelm & Engle (2005)
  • Intelligence: A Diva and a Workhorse. Handbook of understanding and measuring intelligence (pp. 1-9). Thousand Oaks, CA US: Sage Publications, Inc. Open PDF

2004

  • Engle & Kane (2004)
  • Executive attention, working memory capacity, and a two-factor theory of cognitive control.  In B. Ross (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation (Vol. 44, pp. 145-199).  NY: Elsevier. Open PDF

  • Feldman-Barrett, Tugade & Engle (2004)
  • Individual differences in working memory capacity and dual-process theories of the mind. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 553-573. Open PDF

  • Kane et al. (2004)
  • The generality of working memory capacity: A latent variable approach to verbal and visuospatial memory span and reasoning.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133, 189-217. Open PDF

  • Oberauer, Lange & Engle (2004)
  • Working memory capacity and resistance to interference.  Journal of Memory and Language, 51, 80 - 96. Open PDF

  • Unsworth, Schrock, & Engle (2004)
  • Working memory capacity and the antisaccade task: Individual differences in voluntary saccade control.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 30, 1302-1321. Open PDF

2003

  • Bleckley et al. (2003)
  • Individual differences in working memory capacity predict visual attention allocation.  Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10, 884-889. Open PDF

  • Conway, Kane & Engle (2003)
  • Working memory capacity and its relation to general intelligence. Trends in Cognitive Science, 7, 547-552. Open PDF

  • Hambrick & Engle (2003)
  • The role of working memory in problem solving.  In J. E. Davidson & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The Psychology of Problem Solving (pp. 176-206).  London: Cambridge Press. Open PDF

  • Kane & Engle (2003)
  • Working memory capacity and the control of attention: The contributions of goal neglect, response competition, and task set to Stroop interference.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 47-70. Open PDF

  • Mecklinger et al. (2003)
  • Dissociable brain mechanisms for inhibitory control: Effects of interference content and working memory capacity.  Cognitive Brain Research. Open PDF

2002

  • Engle (2002)
  • Working memory capacity as executive attention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 19-23. Open PDF

  • Hambrick & Engle (2002)
  • Effects of domain knowledge, working memory capacity, and age on cognitive performance: An investigation of the knowledge-is-power hypothesis.  Cognitive Psychology, 44, 339-387. Open PDF

  • Kane (2002, November)
  • Working memory capacity as a unitary attentional construct.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Kansas City, MO. Open PDF

  • Kane & Engle (2002)
  • The role of prefrontal cortex in working-memory capacity, executive attention, and general fluid intelligence: An individual differences perspective.  Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 637-671. Open PDF

2001

  • Engle (2001)
  • What is working-memory capacity?.  In H. L. Roediger III & J. S. Nairne (Eds.), The Nature of Remembering: Essays in Honor of Robert G. Crowder (pp. 297-314).  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Open PDF

  • Kane et al. (2001)
  • A controlled-attention view of working-memory capacity.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 169-183. Open PDF

  • Tuholski, Engle & Baylis (2001)
  • Individual differences in working memory capacity and enumeration.  Memory & Cognition, 29, 484-492. Open PDF

2000

  • Kane & Engle (2000)
  • Working-Memory Capacity, Proactive Interference, and Divided Attention: Limits on Long-Term. Journal of Experimental Psychology / Learning, Memory & Cognition, 26(2), 336. Open PDF

1990 - 1999

1999

  • Conway et al. (1999)
  • The effect of memory load on negative priming: An individual differences investigation. Memory & Cognition, 27, 1042-1050.Open PDF

  • Engle, Kane & Tuholski (1999)
  • Individual differences in working memory capacity and what they tell us about controlled attention, general fluid intelligence and functions of the prefrontal cortex.  In Miyake, A. & Shah, P. (Eds.), Models of Working Memory: Mechanisms of Active Maintenance and Executive Control (pp.102-134).  London: Cambridge Press.Open PDF

  • Engle & Oransky (1999)
  • The evolution from short-term to working memory: Multi-store to dynamic models of temporary storage. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), The Nature of Cognition (pp. 514-555).  Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Open PDF

  • Engle et al. (1999)
  • Working memory, short-term memory and general fluid intelligence: A latent variable approach.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 309-331.Open PDF

  • Kane, Conway & Engle (1999)
  • What do working memory tests really measure?.  Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 101-102.Open PDF

1998

  • Engle & Conway (1998)
  • Working memory and comprehension.  In R. H. Logie, & K. J. Gilhooly, (Eds.), Working Memory and Thinking (pp 67-92).  East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.Open PDF

  • Rosen & Engle (1998)
  • Working memory capacity and suppression.  Journal of Memory and Language, 39, 418-436.Open PDF

1997

  • Rosen & Engle (1997)
  • Forward and backward serial recall.  Intelligence, 25, 37-47.Open PDF

  • Rosen & Engle (1997)
  • The role of working memory capacity in retrieval.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 126, 211-227.Open PDF

1996

  • Conway & Engle (1996)
  • Individual differences in working memory capacity: More evidence for a general capacity theory. Memory, 4, 577-590.Open PDF

  • Engle (1996)
  • Working memory and retrieval: An inhibition-resource approach.  In J.T.E. Richardson, R.W. Engle, L. Hasher, R.H. Logie, E.R. Stoltzfus, & R.T. Zacks (Eds.), Working Memory and Human Cognition. New York: Oxford University Press.Open PDF

1995

  • Engle et al. (1995)
  • A resource account of inhibition.  Psychological Science, 6, 122-125.Open PDF

1994

  • Conway & Engle (1994)
  • Working memory and retrieval: A resource-dependent inhibition model.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123, 354-373.Open PDF

  • Engle (1994)
  • Memory. In Robert J. Sternberg (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Human Intelligence (pg. 700-704), NY: Macmillan.Open PDF

  • Turner et al. (1994)
  • Effects of vocabulary size and acoustic similarity on serial recall of mouthed stimuli. Journal of General Psychology, 121, 361-376.Open PDF

1993

  • Cantor & Engle (1993)
  • Working memory capacity as long-term memory activation: An individual differences approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 19, 1101-1114.Open PDF

1992

  • Engle, Cantor & Carullo (1992)
  • Individual differences in working memory and comprehension: A test of four hypotheses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 18, 972-992.Open PDF

  • Turner et al. (1992)
  • Effects of same modality interference on immediate serial recall of auditory and visual information.  Journal of General Psychology, 119, 247-263.Open PDF

1991

  • Cantor, Engle & Hamilton (1991)
  • Short-term memory, working memory, and verbal abilities: How do they relate?. Intelligence, 15, 229-246.Open PDF

  • Engle, Carullo & Collins (1991)
  • Individual differences in the role of working memory in comprehension and following directions.  Journal of Educational Research, 84, 253-262.Open PDF

  • Shimp, Stuart & Engle (1991)
  • A program of classical conditioning experiments testing variations in the conditioned stimulus and context.  Journal of Consumer Research, 18, 1-12.Open PDF

1990

  • Balota, Cowan & Engle (1990)
  • Suffix interference in the recall of linguistically coherent speech.   Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 16, 446-456.Open PDF

  • Engle, Nations & Cantor (1990)
  •  Is "working memory" capacity just another name for word knowledge? Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 799-804.Open PDF

  • La Pointe & Engle (1990)
  • Simple and complex word spans as measures of working memory capacity.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 16, 1118-1133.Open PDF

  • Stuart, Shimp & Engle (1990)
  • Classical conditioning of negative attitudes.  Advances in Consumer Research, 17, 536-540.Open PDF

1980 - 1989

1989

  • Cantor & Engle (1989)
  • The effects of concurrent load on mouthed and vocalized modality effects.  Memory & Cognition, 17, 701-711.Open PDF

  • Engle, Cantor & Turner (1989)
  • Modality effects: Do they fall on deaf ears? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 41A, 273-292.Open PDF

  • Turner & Engle (1989)
  • Is working memory capacity task dependent?.  Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 127-154.Open PDF

1987

  • Stuart, Shimp & Engle (1987)
  • Classical conditioning of consumer attitudes: Four experiments in an advertising context.  Journal of Consumer Research, 14, 334-349.Open PDF

  • Turner et al. (1987)
  • Recency and suffix effects found with auditory presentation and with mouthed visual presentation: They're not the same thing.  Journal of Memory and Language, 26, 138-164.Open PDF

1986

  • Sipe & Engle (1986)
  •  Echoic memory processes in good and poor readers.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12, 402-412.Open PDF

  • Turner & Engle (1986)
  • Working memory capacity.  Proceedings of the Human Factors Society, 30, 1273-1277.Open PDF

1984

  • Dick & Engle (1984)
  • The effect of instruction with relational and item-specific elaborative strategies on young children's organization and free recall.  Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 37, 282-302.Open PDF

1983

  • Engle & Marshall (1983)
  • Do developmental changes in digit span result from acquisition strategies?.  Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 36, 429-436.Open PDF

  • Greenberg & Engle (1983)
  • Voice change in the stimulus suffix effect: Are the effects structural or strategic?  Memory & Cognition, 11,  551-556.Open PDF

1982

  • Engle & Roberts (1982)
  • How long does the modality effect persist?.  Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 19, 343-346.Open PDF

  • Watson & Engle (1982)
  • Is it lateralization, processing strategies or both that distinguishes good and poor readers?. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 34, 1-19.Open PDF

1981

  • Balota & Engle (1981)
  •  Structural and strategic factors in the stimulus suffix effect.  Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 20, 346-357.Open PDF

  • Engle, Fidler & Reynolds (1981)
  • Does echoic memory develop? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 32, 459-473.Open PDF

  • Kramer & Engle (1981)
  • Teaching awareness of strategic behavior in combination with strategic training: Effects on children's memory performance.  Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 32, 513-530.Open PDF

1980

  • Engle (1980)
  • The suffix effect: How many positions are involved?.  Memory & Cognition, 8, 247-252.Open PDF

  • Engle, Clark & Cathcart (1980)
  • The modality effect: Is it a result of different strategies?.  Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 226-239.Open PDF

  • Engle, Nagle & Dick (1980)
  • Maintenance and generalization of a semantic rehearsal strategy in educable mentally retarded children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 30, 438-454.Open PDF

  • Kramer, Nagle & Engle (1980)
  • Recent advances in mnemonic strategy training with the mentally retarded: Implications for the special educator.  American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 85, 306-314.Open PDF

1970 - 1979

1979

  • Engle & Nagle (1979)
  • Strategy training and semantic encoding in mildly retarded children.  Intelligence, 3, 17-30.Open PDF

1978

  • Engle & Bukstel (1978)
  • Memory processes among bridge players of differing expertise.  American Journal of Psychology, 91, 673-689.Open PDF

1977

  • Engle (1977)
  • A developmental study of the Prelinguistic Auditory Store (PAS).  Intelligence, 1, 358-368.Open PDF

  • Engle & Durban (1977)
  • Effects of modality of presentation on delayed recognition.  Perceptual and Motor Skill, 45, 1203-1210.Open PDF

1976

  • Engle & Mobley (1976)
  • The modality effect: What happens in long-term memory?.  Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 15, 519-527.Open PDF

1975

  • Engle (1975)
  • Pupillary measurement and release from proactive inhibition.  Perceptual and Motor Skills, 41, 835-842.Open PDF

1974

  • Engle (1974)
  • Negative recency in delayed recognition.  Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13, 209-216.Open PDF

  • Engle (1974b)
  • The modality effect: is precategorical acoustic storage responsible?.  Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102, 824-829.Open PDF

1973

  • Engle (1973)
  • The interaction between presentation rate, retention test and the negative recency effect.  Dissertation Abstracts International, 34(5-B), 2336.Open PDF

1970

  • Wickens & Engle (1970)
  •  Imagery and abstractness in short-term memory.  Journal of Experimental Psychology, 84, 268-272.Open PDF